Research or study in Hutan Harapan is under the Research Department, which includes several activities. Some of the research was carried out in collaboration with universities, non-governmental organizations, and national and international studies, such as the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), and the University of Goettingen in the Collaboration Research Center (CRC) with several universities in Indonesia, such as the Bogor Institute of Agriculture and Jambi University.
Hutan Harapan is the main location of research and lectures at the Faculty of Forestry at the University of Jambi. The Hutan Harapan research team also assisted researchers from various institutions and countries, including research on birds, mammals, amphibians, fish, bamboo potential, and so on.
Vegetation Growth Analysis
Analysis of vegetation growth on a permanent measurement map (PUP) was carried out to determine dominant individuals and families. According to Johnson and Gillman (1995), the dominant family of vegetation has a percentage of >20 percent of the total species available.
Observation of Erosion Rate
Erosion monitoring is carried out using the erosion plot method in three different locations. Monitoring is carried out routinely every six months and it is hoped that the erosion value does not increase in every observation. By getting a low erosion value and still below the threshold, conservation of soil and water at this location is not necessary, the only insertion will be made if there is an increase in erosion in subsequent monitoring.
Rainfall monitoring is carried out by building a rainfall monitoring station and installing an ombrometer, altimeter, thermometer and so on. One automatic rainfall monitor is installed at the Bato nursery location. From January-June 2015 monitoring, the highest rainfall occurred in April, which is up to 166.5 mm / month. While the smallest rainfall occurs in May (1.6 mm/month).
Fauna monitoring is carried out routinely to find out the latest development of fauna data in Harapan Forest. The research team has identified fauna types, including those that are endangered. Monitoring is also carried out by installing a camera trap. In monitoring the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), 24 individuals were found in the Hutan Harapan area.
Important monitoring recently conducted by the Harapan Forest research team is the elephant survey. The survey was conducted twice in October and November 2015, using the pet occupancy method, which is exploring the specified grid cell. Signs of the presence of elephants, such as feces, food scraps, scraping are sampled and recorded.
The opening of plantations and industrial plantations by large-scale companies adjacent to the Harapan Forest makes the elephant home range narrow. Harapan Forest is now the most important area for the roaming and survival of Sumatran elephants in Jambi and South Sumatra Provinces.
Ground checks are conducted on locations that have experienced damage or fire. Ground check data of the research team is needed to obtain the condition of the soil and forests after the destruction and fire.
The potential survey conducted to determine the potential of wood or trees in Hutan Harapan. Surveys are conducted regularly in different blocks and plots. At each level, there are species of trees that dominate. For seedlings, the dominant species are Bellucia pentamera, Croton argyratus, Koompassia malaccensis, and unknown species (N/A). At the sapling, the level is dominated by the types of Baccaurea racemosa, Bambusa sp, Bellucia pentamera, Croton argyratus, Gironniera nervosa. For the mast level of the dominant types are Bellucia pentamera, Macaranga conifera, Acacia mangium, Baccaurea macrocarpa, and unknown species (NA). Finally, the tree level is dominated by Balakata baccata, Endospermum diadenum, Gironniera nervosa, Lithocarpus elegans, and Koompassia malaccensis.
Non-timber forest product potential (NTFP) survey was conducted long ago and last intensively conducted on jelutong plants in Simpang Macan Dalam (June 2015). NTFP potential survey was conducted to determine the distribution of NTFPs in the Hutan Harapan area. The results of the potential survey serve as material for follow-up in seeking NTFP production. Some of the high-value NTFPs in Hutan Harapan are jelutong sap, jernang (rattan fruit), manau, rattan, bamboo, honey, and rubber.
The method used in the phenology survey is a semi-quantitative method with a scoring system that is divided into two parts of measurement, namely the reproductive structure (flowers and fruit) and leaves. From this study, it can be seen among other things the flowering period and fruiting of a tree in a season. This survey is very important among others for tree nurseries in Hutan Harapan.(*)
The greatest concentration of ecosystem restoration work in Hutan Harapan is on forest protection under the Department of Forest Protection. More than 100 staff are empowered in this department, including security, patrol, fire fighting, anti-poaching, and anti-illegal logging tasks.
In their duties, this department cooperates with other security agencies, such as the National Police, TNI, and the Forestry Rapid Reaction Police Unit (Sporc) and fire-related agencies, such as Manggala Agni and the Karhutla Command Post in Jambi Province.
For guidance and knowledge of security personnel, management conducts refresher training activities, basic security guard training, and fire fighting and other skills training. The task of this department more broadly also detects pest and disease disorders, disturbance of soil and water conservation and other disorders.
In a preventive effort, the activities carried out are the installation of prohibition/warning boards both along the boundaries of the concession, areas with high intensity of community traffic and river border areas.
Security is carried out by some Security Unit teams regularly. The unit stayed at the post and conducted a walking patrol by motorized vehicles and cars. For this purpose, several security units were built in the Hutan Harapan area.
Joint security with joint teams (internal units, Sporc and Brimob), also carried out routinely and periodically. The unit conducts patrols running by motor vehicles and cars; appeal and remind people who carry out illegal activities in the Hutan Harapan.
Warnings and Legal Actions
The forest protection team installed some warnings and prohibitions on clearing forest land and carried out illegal logging and other illegal actions in the Hutan Harapan area. If a violator is found, the team will first give a letter of appeal or ask for a statement not to repeat the action. More than that is a legal action, carried out by the Ministry of Forestry in collaboration with state security forces.
On several occasions, the Hutan Harapan internal security unit together with various security units carried out a joint operation to encroach illegal loggers and perpetrators. This operation must be carried out to deal with the incessant pressure of the encroachment of Hutan Harapan as a state forest whose concession permit is held by PT Indonesia Ecosystem Restoration.
Departing from the 2015 drought experience, the Hutan Harapan Fire Fighting Unit made this alert. This early preparation is supported by Geographic Information System (GIS) technology with data and information support from the United States and other NASA satellites.
Whenever satellite imagery monitors hotspots in the Hutan Harapan region, NASA immediately sends an early alert to be analyzed by the GIS team, processed, then reported to the fire department. With this data, firefighting personnel can immediately move quickly to find hot spots and do blackouts.
With around 50 trained personnel (trained by Manggali Agni instructors in Jambi and South Sumatra provinces) the firefighting team is supported by some sophisticated equipment. Among these, five units of the Wildfire Mark-3 27 kg water pump machine are capable of spraying water with 14 hose branches each along 40 meters simultaneously.
There are also five units of the 9 kg Mini Striker pumping machine which are capable of spraying water with a 30-meter long hose with five branches simultaneously. There are also two units of the 86 kg PFP 20hp CET pumping machine which is also capable of spraying water with further capacity and range. (*)